Modal verbs/Модальді етістіктердің қолданылуы

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Modal verbs
3. Лекция жинағы, Тұтас орта , Мазм ны Кіріспе І тарау. М. Ма атаев ле деріндегі лексикалы ан, adebiet teoriyas sillabus, adebiet teoriyas sillabus, Мақала образец, Қазіргі қазақ тілі сөзжасамы ДО, e2800937-492b-11e4-973d-f6d299da70eeадеб т 3 (1), 3. Лекция жинағы, озгерис сырттай МФИ послед темы дипломных работ 2019, озгерис сырттай Акпар Стан послед темы дипломных работ 2019 - 2020 - копия, озгерис сырттай МФИ послед темы дипломных работ 2019, БББ рус МФ 1 06.02 (2), БББ рус МФ 1 06.02 (2), БББ рус МФ 1 06.02 (2)

Modal verbs/Модальді етістіктер

Модальді етістіктердің қолданылуы

Модальді етістіктің




Қабілеттілікті, мүмкіндікті

Can you skate?



Белгілі бір жағдайда іс-әрекеттің

You can see the forest

орындалу мүмкіндігін білдіреді

through the other window.

Рұқсат немесе ӛтініш

Can I use your car?

Күмәндану немесе сенімсіздік

Can it be true?

Бір нәрсенің рас болуының

It can`t be true.

мүмкін еместігін



May I borrow your pen?

Сенімсіздік пен болжау,

He may be ill.


Мақұлдамау, жазғыру, реніш

You might have helped



Істің міндетті түрде орындалуын

You must do your

талап ету


Тыйым салу

He must not leave his

room for a while.

Эмоционалды кеңес, ақыл беру

You must not miss the

exhibition. It is very good.

Сенімді болжам жасау

Your father must be eighty



Міндеттілікті білдіреді

He had to do it.

Істі орындаудың қажет емес

You don`t have to go

екендігін болымсыз сӛйлемде




Алдын ала жоспарланып не,

We are to discuss it next

келісіліп қойылған істен


туындаған қажеттілік

Бұйрықтар мен нұсқаулықтар

He says I am to leave you


Болуы тиіс істі білдіреді

He was to be my friend for

many years to come.


Кеңес немесе қажеттілік

You ought to say a word

about yourself.

Қалаған істің орындалмағанын

You ought to have called


on him yesterday.

(болымсыз сӛйлемде)

Қаламаған істің орындалғанын

You ought not to have


married her. It was a great



Міндет, кеңес, ақыл

It`s late. You should go to



Болымсыз сӛйлемдерде істі

The doctor knows I won`t


орындауға қарсы екендігін

be operated on.

білдіреді, жай инфинитифпен


Жансыз заттармен қолданылып,

My pen would not write.

олардың жарамсыздығын


Жиі қайталанылатын іс-әрекет

She will sit for hours under

the old tree.



You need not be afraid of


Болған істің қажетсіздігін

You need not have



Модальді етістіктер және олардың эквиваленттері

Must – міндетті

To be to – міндетті (жоспарға, кестеге сай мағынасында және т.б.)

Have to – міндетті (мәжбүр)

Should – істеуге тиісті (тиіс) (кеңес, ұсыныс)

Ought to – істеуге тиіс (тиісті) (кеңес, ұсыныс)

Can (could) – қабілетті, істей алу

To be able – қабілетті, істей алу

May (might) – қабілетті, істей алу, рұқсат, істі орындауға мүмкіндігі болу
Модальді етістіктердің шақтары

Past/ӛткен шақ

Present/осы шақ

Future/келер шақ




be able to do smth



had to do smth


have to do smth





be allowed to do smth


Exercise 1. Сӛйлемдерді қазақ тіліне аударыңыздар.

  1. He could not go to work yesterday.

  1. He was not allowed to cross the border.

  2. She left before the end of the performance. She had to go home early.

  1. People ought to be more tolerant.

  2. She needn`t to wear such warm coat today.

  1. When I came into the kitchen, I could smell the burning.

  2. You will have to work hard at your English.

  1. You cannot smoke here.

  2. You do not have to break the law to become famous!

  1. They were able to escape.


Exercise 2. Кестеде берілген сӛз тіркестерін пайдалана отырып, can етістігін қажетті жерге қойыңыздар.

Model: Can you show me the way? I am a stranger here.

park (your car), show me the way, ride a bicycle, understand, trust, wait for us, close the

window, swim, phone

  1. … you …? I am cold.

  2. You … here. Look for another place to park your car.

  1. I … when I was three. My father taught me.

  2. She … . She is afraid of water.

  1. I … him yesterday. I did not remember his number.

  2. We … him. He is a liar.

  1. She … . She was in a hurry.

  2. … you … him? I think he is speaking English.

Exercise 3. Сӛйлемдерді can, could, be able to модальді етістіктерімен толықтырыңыздар.

  1. I ….. drive now but next year I …… drive.

  1. Last year he …… speak English as well as he …… speak this year.

  2. I …… remember his name.

  1. I …… cook a month ago but I am taking a course and next month I …… to cook.

  2. She ……be babysit but I am not sure of that.

  1. …… I help you? Do you need help?

  2. …… you do the shopping in the evening? The fridge is empty.

  1. ……you skate when you were six?

Exercise 4. Сӛйлемдерде must, have to етістіктерін дҧрыс қолданыңыздар.

  1. He says I …… tell him the truth.

  1. He said I …… win the game.

  2. I …… look for another job next month.

  1. I …… wake up early yesterday.

  2. …… I type this article now?

  1. I was late because I …… type an article.

  2. I`ll prove it and you …… admit I`m right.

  1. The house was too small for them and they …… look for another house last year.

  2. I …… leave in an hour.

Exercise 5. Сӛйлемдердегі ескертпе жазуларды дҧрыс ретімен жазыңыз.

Model: Children under 16 / to see the film. Children under 16 may not see the film.

  1. You / to take dogs to the restaurant ……

  2. Children under 7 /to enter unless they are with a grown-up ……

  1. Alcoholic drinks / to be sold to people under 21 ……

  2. Students / to smoke in the classrooms ……

  1. You / to enter wearing a hat ……

  2. Students / to enter without gowns …….

Exercise 6. Ҥлгі бойынша ӛтініш білдіріңіз.
Model: Mrs. Snow feels bad. She wants her boss to let her leave her office earlier. What does she say? May I leave earlier?

  1. Ted is tired and needs a day off. What does he say?

  2. Mr. Newton is nervous and wants to speak to the pilot. He asks the stewardess …

  1. You want to use the telephone but the line is busy. Mary has been talking for forty minutes.


What do you say?

  1. Your car has broken down and you must meet a friend at the airport. Ask your neighbour to let you have his car.

  1. You don`t like your room at the hotel. You want to have another room. What do you say?

Exercise 7. Сӛйлемдерді can/may етістіктерін пайдалана отырып, ӛзгертіп жазыңыздар.

Model: Perhaps he is joking. He may be joking.

Is it possible that he is angry? Can he be angry?
1. Perhaps she is angry. ……

  1. Is it possible that he is washing his car? ……

  1. Is it possible that he has returned? ……

  2. Perhaps he is playing tennis. ……

  1. Perhaps he has been working in the garden all this time. ……

  2. Is it possible that she has been wearing these shoes for five years? ……

  1. Perhaps he has misunderstood you. ……

  2. Is it possible that he has lost his job? ……

  1. Is it possible that she is badly ill? ……

  2. Perhaps they have been discussing the plan since morning. ……

Exercise 8. Сӛйлемдерді ағылшын тіліне аударыңыздар.

  1. Сізге сұрақ қоюға бола ма?

  1. Ол он минуттан кейін келуге тиіс.

  1. Менің ойымша, сен барлық жұмысты ӛзің орындауың керек.

  2. Ол бізге қоңырау шалғандықтан, біз оны шақыруға мәжбүр болдық.

  1. Мен дәл уақытында келе алмаймын.

  2. Кім сұраққа жауап бере алады?

  1. Радионы қалайша жӛндей алдыңыз?

  2. Ол жерден керек заттың барлығын сатып ала аласың.

  1. Бұл балалар жүзе алады.

  2. Сағат неше болғанын айтасыз ба?

Exercise 9. Open the brackets and fill in the blanks with the appropriate forms of the verbs must, have to or to be to.

  1. You___(not tell) him about it. It's a secret.

  1. It looks like rain. You___(take) your raincoats.

  2. You ___(not talk) so loudly here.

  1. In his youth he ___ (work) from morning till night to earn his living.

  2. He ___(wait) at the station till it stopped raining.

  1. The secretary informed us when the manager___(come).

  1. They___(leave) on Saturday, but because of the delay with their visas they___(book) tickets for Monday.

  1. They___(not tell) him anything about it before they get further instructions.

  1. He___(leave) for London that night.

10.___I (do) it all by myself?

  1. It was too late to change their plans and they___(put up) with it.

  2. You___(not prepare) all this work, I will help you.

  1. Stay here till she is free. I think you___(not wait) long.

  2. We___(conduct) a series of experiments this week.

  1. Remember that we___(be) at this place not later than noon.

Exercise 10. Read the situations and write sentences with should (shouldn't) have or


ought to (ought not to) have
Example: He had a test this morning. — He didn't do it well. He should have studied more last night.

  1. She didn't take a taxi. She was late for the wedding.

  2. I didn't eat at home. Now I'm hungry.

  1. She bought a TV set last month. Now she regrets doing that. Her children watch it day and night.

  1. He signed a contract without reading it thoroughly. Now he has discovered that he has no right to make any amendments there.

  1. Mary sold her house. That was a mistake because now she spends a lot of money to rent an apartment.

  1. I enjoyed the party last night a lot. Why didn't you come?

  1. The driver in front of me stopped suddenly and I smashed into the back of his car. It was not my fault.

  1. The boy went out without the doctor's permission now he is much worse.

  1. When we arrived at the hotel there were no free rooms. We hadn't reserved one.

  2. It was not a good idea for Tom and Mary to get married. Now they quarrel all days long.

Exercise 11. Choose the right variant.

  1. She looks bad. She should (be/have been) more careful about her health.

  1. You shouldn't (miss/have missed) the chance. It was a brilliant opportunity for you.

  1. I think the policeman was right. She shouldn't (exceed/have exceeded) the speed.

  2. I ought to (bring/ have taken) the opera glasses. Now I see nothing.

  1. It seems to me that he is a hot-temper person and often flies into a rage because of mere trifles. He should (control/ have controlled) his temper.

  1. They should (clear/have cleared) up the problem long time ago.

  2. I ought not (to stay/have stayed) there long. The party was a failure.

  1. You should (shave/have shaved) this beard of yours.

  2. She should (be/have been) more attentive. Didn't she see a car on the right?

  1. It's a secret. You ought not to (reveal/have revealed) it to anybody.

Exercise 12. Open the brackets and fill in the blanks with must, have to, be to, should, need, ought to (in some cases you may have several variants)

  1. He ___(not go) to court because the case was dismissed.

  2. If I'm late, I'll ___(take) a taxi.

  1. The young___(respect) the old age.

  1. The conversation grew awkward. She felt that something ___ (do), or else the party would break up.

  2. They___(meet) tomorrow, so you___(not make) an appointment to see him.

  1. You ___(have) a visa to enter a foreign country.

  2. You___ (try) and be more punctual.

  1. Why are you so late? — I ___(change) a tire.

  2. You___(not shout), I am not deaf.

  1. They___(cross) the English Channel now.

Exercise 13. Express your surprise and disbelief using can/could.

A in interrogative sentences.

Example: He is working now. — Can/Could he be working now?

  1. He was at the party yesterday.

  1. They are in Germany.

  2. He has broken his leg.

  1. They were sent to prison.


  1. She got married.

  1. He studies at Cambridge University.

  2. She has been practicing the violin for five years.

  1. He has made an interesting report.

  2. He has won a lot of money in the casino.

  1. They will go to the Canaries next summer.

  2. He has passed his English exam.

  1. She will be forty in June.

  2. She is stubborn.

  1. He was a cruel man.

  1. in negative sentences.

Example: He bought a new car.— He can't/ couldn't have bought a car.

  1. You are mistaken.

  1. They forgot about the meeting.

  2. He is writing a new novel now.

  1. She has bought a new fur coat.

  2. He had an accident.

  1. Mary will invite the Jones to her place for the weekend.

  2. They upset our plans.

  1. She wastes a lot of time.

  2. Mr. Fox is a reliable person.

  1. She is making a cruise now.

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